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Breaking the poverty cycle with education

Breaking the poverty cycle with education

Nearly 640,000 Australian children live in a ‘jobless’ family. These children are, on average, up to three years behind their peers in reading and maths by the time they’re 15 years of age. But this doesn’t have to be the case.

HSC completion rates in lower socio-economic backgrounds are still much lower (58%) than for students from higher socio-economic backgrounds (77%).

Lisa O’Brien is the CEO of The Smith Family which runs programs purely directed toward supporting education from early childhood through tertiary study and says that with 1 in 10 children growing up in a house where there is no adult working, it puts enormous pressure on the financial resources in the home and the consequences are far-reaching.

“Today in Australia, 1 in 10 children are growing up in a house where there is no adult working. That puts enormous pressure on the financial resources in the home and there are far-reaching consequences of that.”

“We’re seeing young people growing up in households where there have been multiple generations of unemployment and financial disadvantage, and growing up in a home where there aren’t strong moral models around employment.”

“That’s not through any lack of desire on behalf of the parents it’s just that they haven’t been employed, so the things that are often taken for granted such as seeing someone get up in the morning and get dressed and go to work – kids don’t grow up with that kind of role model or example and so it tends to become a self-perpetuating cycle.”

“It’s partly because of the role-modelling, partly access to resources and also a sense of aspiration, that ‘I’m at school and I’m going to work hard so I can go on to university and get a job’; it’s just not the language in those households.”

“So we are seeing that these communities of long term disadvantage are growing around Australia. That puts a lot of pressure on young people who want to break out of that cycle.”

Over 20 years ago, The Smith Family changed its support model from one of welfare and charitable handouts, food parcels, etc, to one of supporting education.

“Our mission has always been to support kids and families with emergency help when in crisis, but it was recognised that we were just seeing the same families coming back through the door and we weren’t achieving sustainable change, that we weren’t making a difference in the long term to these kids and families. Research told us the key was education.”

“So we refocused all of our operations from passive assistance support to early intervention, focusing on supporting young people with their education. We start that support when they’re young and we will stay with the child all through the journey providing them support with the ultimate aim of them completing school and ideally going on to some further study, but definitely with the aim of transitioning into employment.”

“We recognised that there were others that could provide that sort of immediate emergency help and welfare support, but over time we realised by us giving additional financial support targeted to education that they were able to make a long-term change and they (the families) really valued that this money was quarantined to support their kids with education and wasn’t just getting subsumed in the needs of everyday existence.”

Anne Hampshire is the head of research for The Smith Family and she says even something most of us take for granted – internet access – can be a major problem for many Australian families.

“ABS data shows that lots of children are unable to access the internet at home. Research shows that 1 in 5 children aged between 5 and 14 had no internet access at home over a 12-month period and in some communities it was as high as 1 in 3 children.”

“Why that particularly matters, the major reason children use the internet at home is education-related activity. Yes, they might download movies and music, but the predominant reason they use it is for education, and assumptions are made that everybody has access to the internet.”

In our own region, the principal of Irrawang High School (Raymond Terrace) recently told 1233 that 25% of his students had no internet access at home and are earning about $200 per week less than the state average.

Anne says these figures reflect their own, “Around 40% of our families don’t have an email address.”

Newcastle mother, Lu*, says the support of The Smith Family’s Learning for Life program has taught her children more than the basics.

“When they were younger, they had a reading group where someone would phone them and have the kids read with them over the phone. We’ve learnt to budget and it makes a big difference knowing that the money is going to help our kids learn.”

“I’m not as smart as my children, I only went to Year 10 and then to TAFE, but I didn’t really have much of an education. My kids know that they need an education to get a job, to make a career, to get further in life, to have a good home and survive. They know it’s hard.”

“If we didn’t have this little bit of support, it would be another struggle. People say, ‘Oh, just put $10 aside’. Well, what $10!? I need $10 more! It’s a struggle.”

Lu now has a child at university, another doing his HSC and a little one yet to start school, but it was tough to hear Lu say that she’d actually told her kids not to be like her.

“I always say to them, ‘You don’t want to be uneducated like us and not be able to afford things. Look at us, we’re struggling every day, but with your education you’ll be able to do whatever you want and help others.”

Alex* is Lu’s son and this year completing his HSC. It speaks highly of Lu’s work with The Smith Family to support her children through education that Alex doesn’t consider himself to be ‘disadvantaged’.

“I think disadvantage is when someone doesn’t have access to the same resources as someone else. I don’t think I am too disadvantaged, I have a lot of positives in my life and I know there are plenty of others that don’t have the benefits that I do.”

How does Alex feel about being sponsored?

“It gives me education. There’s quite a range of social groups at school but most of my friends want to go to university. I want to study a social science degree, philosophy, theology, a few things because I like to learn and I’m fascinated these topics.”

Research by The Smith Family shows that completely Year 12 ‘increases a young person’s likelihood of continuing with further study, as well as entering the workforce.’

It also leads to higher annual earnings for individuals, greater community involvement and economic benefits for the country as a whole.

But not completing Year 12 can lead to:

Increased crime and poorer health outcomes among early school leavers
Nationally lower levels of productivity
Reduced quality of the labour force
Increased unemployment
Lower growth in income tax collections

Indeed, the Victorian Auditor-General’s Report, November 2012, said:

Education attainment is an important predictor of future employment, welfare and health prospects – and it improves [a person’s] ability to contribute socially and economically in the community.

Lisa O’Brien says that helping children obtain an education is good for all of us.

“There are some kids and families in Australia who are doing it really tough, but with the right support at the right time they can turn their lives around. That’s in everyone’s interest. If we have young people who are well-educated and focused on completing school and going on to employment, we’ll all prosper. It’s a great investment.”

(*names changed)

Immunisation and a preventable cancer

Immunisation and a preventable cancer

On the Friday night before Christmas 2012, I spent six hours in an operating theatre with a dearly loved friend. The only time I’d ever been conscious in an operating theatre was during the caesarean births of  my sons.

When someone tells you something like “I have cancer” it’s probably a fairly common response to feel both scared and helpless.

But if I was to write a list of ‘things I love about my job’, then being able to do stories like this and share them with others, maybe making a difference, would be right up there. I call it ‘using my evil powers for good’.

Brad and his wife felt that in doing this story it would help others in the future who might be faced with the terrible decision he had to make. It’s a story with a bit of a twist, too.

As for me, if just one boy gets vaccinated against HPV that might not have if it weren’t for this story – then I’m happy.

brad and birdBRAD KEELING: I started smoking when I was 17 and I gave up when I was 24 so I smoked for about eight years I guess, and not very heavily, but yeah, I smoked. I’ve been around smokers all my life. My Dad worked for WD & HO Wills but that didn’t really mean that I took up smoking because of him, he was the person most against me smoking.

Both my parents smoked all their lives and both of them died from cancer, but neither of them died from a cancer which was caused by smoking. My father was a blender of tobacco. A buyer of tobacco originally for William Butler tobacco company, then WD & HO Wills which became British American Tobacco.

As a buyer he eventually became a blender and then he effectively was the chemist who put together the cigarettes in the way they were compiled – flavours with different leaves and things.

He travelled lots of places from Mareeba in Australia to Rhodesia in Africa and just like somebody would create perfume with different blends, my dad created cigarettes. I remember one interesting one, Port Royal roll your own tobacco, which smells great. To this day I think it smells great when I smell it in the pouches. It was sweet and fruity.

Anyway, he created all those things. He’d travel around and look for leaves from different places, if it rained too heavily in South America, he’d have to find somewhere else in New Guinea that had the same type of leaf or whatever. Today, of course, cigarettes are not created by blenders, it’s all created artificially by computer programs.

I think there has been an element of passive smoke around me all my life, no question about it, certainly in my childhood and twenties. In those days people smoked in the house, bars and restaurants and all sorts of places. It was really only in the eighties that we publicly stopped smoking in places like aeroplanes and offices and so on, so I’ve had passive smoke around me all of my life because of my upbringing and the general community. It was just what we did.

My cancer is throat cancer and one of the causes of throat cancer is smoking, but I’m not a smoker. There are other potential causes but we just don’t know, and may never know, what caused my cancer. I guess they’ll have some pathology eventually and will know. I like a beer and alcohol is another cause.

Smoking and alcohol are the most prevalent causes but another is HPV (human papilloma virus) which apparently people can have, and not know, for decades. I’ve since found out this is why they now want to immunise young teen boys against HPV with the cervical cancer vaccine.

I went to the doctor back in September for a persistent sore throat that was quite persistent, I’d had it for what seemed like months. I’d put up with it and it seemed to come and go but actually it was always there. Eventually I gave up whinging about it and went to the doctor. She looked in my throat, saw it was a little red so prescribed antibiotics which I took religiously for two courses and then went back to her and said, ‘No, I still have a sore throat’. She was wondering then if I had some post-nasal drip. I felt like I did although I couldn’t quite work it out but I now know that the lump in my throat that I’m constantly trying to swallow is actually attached to the back of my tongue but I didn’t know that at the time so we put some steroids up my nose for a few weeks to try to dry up my nose.

That didn’t help the throat and I still had that feeling (of wanting to swallow something) and so I went back and saw her late November. At that point she decided to have me see an ear, nose and throat specialist that Saturday (24 November). He had a look down my throat and told me I had a lump and sent me off for an MRI on the Tuesday. He then phoned me on the Wednesday to say he wanted me to have a biopsy on the Saturday (1 Dec). He rushed through the pathology and rang me on the Monday night to say I had a tumour, cancer, and that there was more than likely a secondary cancer in my lymph glands.

I went on the Tuesday to a cancer specialist head and neck surgeon, Dr Jonathan Clarke, who confirmed that I had cancer and that, again, most likely that there was a secondary cancer. He ordered a PET scan that showed that I have a cancerous tumour in my throat and also one of the lymph glands in my neck.That afternoon I saw Professor Milross at RPA and discussed the treatments available. I’d also discussed the treatments with Dr Clarke.

The other interesting thing that I now know, having read about throat cancer, there’s not a lot everybody tells you that’s interesting but I now know that throat cancer often first presents as an ear ache. I went to the doctor for an ear ache back in February. Of course, I had an ear ache and my jaw was a bit sore so we just thought that maybe I slept with my mouth open or maybe I held my head strangely so I had some jaw exercise to try to relieve the pressure. There was nothing wrong with my eardrum it just looked like I was putting some pressure on a nerve or something. I didn’t, of course, couple the ear ache with the sore throat until reading about it now.

It was only the radio-oncologist who asked me when I first got the ear ache. He was trying to analyse how fast the tumour was growing. So given that I’ve had the ear ache since at least February the tumour is not growing terribly fast. That’s a good thing. Even so, I’m going to have to have it out. I had to decide between surgery and chemotherapy, both of which would probably be coupled with radiation therapy. That’s been pretty difficult. It’s not like going to the doctor and finding, ‘You’ve got a sore throat and this is what you do – take this pill and lie down.’

The text book treatment, I’m told by the radio-oncologist, for throat cancer is chemotherapy and radiotherapy combined and that surgery, in the past, has been a drastic measure only taken if necessary because to get to the back of your throat the surgeon needs to cut through your jaw, split your jaw open, and then excise the tumour, close your jaw up and join it back together again. Apparently that’s not always that successful and affects all sorts of things from speech to swallowing to goodness only knows what.

However, there is a newer option for surgery these days which is a robotic surgery option where they don’t need to split your jaw, they essentially send a little robot down your throat. It makes no choices of its own, the surgeon manipulates it remotely, and it chops out the tumour. But I had to choose between surgery and chemotherapy and I’ve chosen the surgery route.

I think surgery for throat cancer now with this robot (Da Vinci machine), whilst new, I gather this robot has been used by all sorts of people from the US military to people using it here. We have one here in Australia at the Macquarie University Hospital. I’m going to go with the robotic surgery because I think it’s going to be less of a strain on me and my body than the combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

There’s not enough data at the moment but for some people the robotic surgery result is complete cure and no need for radiotherapy, but I’m in stage three cancer where I have a secondary cancer in my lymph gland. They can’t use the robot for that, they’ve actually got to cut me from my ear to the middle of my throat and extract lymph glands. Because of the possibility of microscopic cancers being elsewhere in the lymph glands the likelihood of radiotherapy following surgery is pretty high for me.

But for others who have throat cancer and no secondary cancer, to excise the tumour with this Da Vinci robot would be pretty good. I’m told the current data says that 60% of those people don’t have any follow-up radiation needed. I don’t think I’m going to be in that category because of the secondary cancer but that’s neither here nor there, and it’s most unlikely that I’ll require chemotherapy post-operation. I’m confident that this is a curable cancer. Both the surgeon and the radiologist separately and independently said that the outcome of this is most likely that it will be cured and it will be gone.

CAROL DUNCAN: What is your main worry at the moment?

BRAD KEELING: I don’t know that I’m really worried about much. The things that worry me mostly are family and friends worrying unnecessarily or more than they need to. I’ve found that to be a very interesting process, talking to family and friends, saying ‘Look, I’ve got some news but it’s all OK really. I’ve got cancer.’ Nobody really takes that very well so I’m mostly worried about getting other people worried.

As for surgery, I don’t like the idea of it, never really have, but I don’t like taking a Panadol! Why would I like surgery?! I’ve already had the needles stuck in my arms for the various reasons like the biopsy and PET scan and while I can deal with needles, I don’t really like it. (Laughs) Post-operative care, I’m told, is basically pretty simple. The throat should heal quite well, the stitches in my neck will heal like any other operation would and it will be fine.

I’m having part of the back of my tongue cut out so there’s the potential for an impact on swallowing and my voice but we’ll wait and see. We don’t really know what’s going to happen there. Assuming I have to have radiation therapy after the operation, the impact of the radiotherapy is such that I will lose part of my taste buds and the ability to taste things, and I will have a reasonably dry throat because I’ll lose some of my salivary glands.

The other interesting thing about choosing the operation as opposed to the combination of chemotherapy and radiation with no operation is that the operation is drastic but a kind of triage for the radiotherapy. I’m told they can target much more accurately the radiotherapy post an operation than they can if I don’t have the operation. In the simplest of terms they said, for instance, ‘We’d have to target the radiotherapy on your neck and both sides of your neck and therefore both salivary glands and all of your tastebuds will be affected,’ whereas post the operation they’ll only have to target the radiotherapy on my left side and therefore the impact will be considerably less.

CAROL DUNCAN: Why do you want me to tell your story?

BRAD KEELING: Recording this story is, I think, something that people will be able to listen to, read, look at photos and make an informed decision about the choice between chemotherapy and the operation. The operation using this robot has really only been done in Australia a dozen times or so, we haven’t had the robotic surgery capability here, so when I was given the choice, the necessity to choose between chemotherapy and the operation, I had to do my own research on the robot, read about it, find out what it was.

Now, this little story is something that other people can read and hopefully it will help them weigh up the choices between chemotherapy and radiation, and the operation. But I’m not qualified to give anybody any medical advice, this little story is really just my story. Anybody reading this, listening to this, really should go and get their advice from their own medical practitioners.

** You can read or listen to all of the interviews I conducted for the radio series on the ABC Newcastle website. A documentary version will go to air on Radio National soon.